Wildlife Academy

Getting Started in Wildlife Rehabilitation

New to the field of wildlife care?  This free 25-minute orientation will introduce you to what it means and what it takes to be a wildlife rehabilitator.


Permit Conditions

The first step to obtaining a wildlife rehabilitation permit is to fully read and understand the permit conditions where you live.  Wildlife rehabilitation law varies dramatically even within the US, there are even some states that allow no rehabiliation at all.  Find the permitting agency in your state (usually a quick internet search for Wildlife Rehabilitation in your state will get you there).  These agencies will provide documentation on their websites for laws and conditions surrounding wildlife rehabilitation in that location, which you should thoroughly review.  In Virginia, wildlife rehabilitation is governed by the Department of Wildlife Resources, and the permit conditions can be found here: https://dwr.virginia.gov/forms-download/wildlife-rehabilitator-conditions.pdf


Permit Categories

Wildlife Rehabilitation permits are usually classified into catogories based on experience and resources.  Here are the Virginia permit categories as an example:

Category I permittees, or apprentices, are for individuals who have less than two years of rehabilitation experience.  Apprentices must be sponsored and supervised by a Category II or III permittee.

Category II permittees are those with advanced skills and more than two years of rehabilitation experience. Category II permittees may be individuals (IIA) or organizations (IIB).

Category III permittess are professionally operated facilities with an on-site veterinary staff.

Category IV permittees, or care providers, are able to work at a facility of a Category I, II, or III permitted rehabilitator. Category IV permittees may not care for wildlife in their own homes.

Category V permittees, are students that are in Virginia only temporarily for training and do not intend to continue to care for wildlife in Virginia long term.



In most states, new wildlife rehabilitators must obtain a sponsor.  A sponsor is a permitted wildlife rehabilitator who holds an advanced permit; they will provide education, training, and support for you as you gain wildlife rehabilitation experience (this is generally referred to as an apprenticeship). This step is necessary in obtaining your permit; two years of apprenticeship are required in Virginia before independent permits are considered.  Most game department websites have a list of permitted rehabilitators who can serve as sponsors. 

Virginia: https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/injured/rehabilitators/


Continuing Education

To obtain or renew permits,  rehabilitators must attend approved education related to wildlife rehabilitation.  The number of required hours varies; in Virginia, six hours are required anually.  Our On-Demand Introductory Courses are a great place to start for those looking to obtain a Category I permit.

There are two professional wildlife rehabilitation organizations that offer opportunities for continuing education and networking, as well as high-quality publications on an assortment of rehabilitation topics. It is highly recommended that those who are interested in wildlife rehabilitation look into one or both of these groups. 

National Wildlife Rehabilitator Association (NWRA) is dedicated to improving and promoting the profession of wildlife rehabilitation and its contributions to preserving natural ecosystems.  www.nwrawildlife.org

International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council (IWRC) provides science-based education and resources to wildlife rehabilitators and the public to promote wildlife conservation and welfare. www.theiwrc.org


Cooperating Veterinarian

As an apprentice, you will have access to the resources your sponsor utilizes and will be providing care mainly for healthy orphaned animals.  However, in order to graduate to an independent permit, you will need to establish a relationship with a veterinarian. Your veterinarian will help to provide medical care and support for your patients.  It is essential for successful rehabilitation that such a relationship exists.  


Facility Inspection

As a new applicant, you should spend some time setting up and organizing your “facility”.  This means selecting the area in which you will be rehabilitating wildlife.  The area can be an unused bedroom, basement, out-building, etc, but must have a door that separates it from living quarters.  Obtain the necessary equipment (e.g., cages, heating pads, scale, hygrometer, handling gloves and syringes) and food (e.g., formulas, solid foods) needed to care for your patients.  Create medical logs/log sheets and feeding charts, build outdoor caging (if applicable), organize and clean work areas and housing areas.  This area will be inspected by conservation police officer once you initiate the permitting process with your state wildlife agency. 


Apply for the Permit 

Once you have read the permit conditions where you live, familiarized yourself with the process of rehabilitating wildlife, located a sponsor, and have set up your facility, contact the rehabilitation permitting office and submit your permit application!




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